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Acoustics: Theory, Measurements, and Applications

(Level: Introductory, 1 Day, $195)

This is an introductory course designed for those new to acoustics, occasional practicioners, and managers. The attendees are first given the essential foundation in the physics of vibration. Only simple mathematics are used. Instrumentation and proper measurement practices are then explained. The theory and practical knowledge are combined during the presentation of particular applications; Community Noise, Noise Control, Sound Power and Intensity, and Hearing Conservation.

1) Theory

  • Creation and Propogation
  • Properties: Level, Frequency, Speed, Wavelength
  • Intensity and Power
  • Diffraction and Reflection
  • Sound Fields: Near, Far, Free, Reverberant

2) Human Response to Sound

  • The Ear
  • The dB
    • Definition
    • Purpose of Usage
    • Adding and Subtracting
    • Subjective Response
  • Frequency Response
  • Equal Loudness Contours
  • Weightings (A, B, C)
  • Loudness
    • Sones and Phons
    • Masking
    • Zwicker
    • Sound Quality

3) Measurement of Sound

  • Microphones
    • Various Kinds
    • Operating Principle
    • Types
      • Definition of Fields
      • Free Field Error
      • Free Field, Random Incidence, Pressure
    • Sensitivity
    • Frequency Range
    • Care
    • Calibration
    • Pre-polarized Designs
  • Preamplifiers: Traditional, IEPE, Outdoor
  • Power Supplies
  • Calibrators
  • Sound Level Meters
    • Type Classifications
    • Schematic
    • Detectors
      • RMS and Peak
      • Time Weightings
    • Frequency Weightings
    • Practical Tips
  • Frequency Analysis
    • Filters
    • FFT
    • Fractional Octave

4) Applications: Community Noise

  • Measurement Metrics
    • SPL, Leq
    • SEL, Lmin, Lmax, Ln, Ldn, CNEL, Intervals, Time Histories
  • Common Ordinances
  • Sound Propagation Outdoors
    • Effects of Temperature Gradient
    • Effects of Wind Gradient
    • Point vs. Line Source
  • Examples of Systems

5) Application: Noise Control

  • Schematic of Noise
  • Sources
  • Barriers
    • Mass Law
    • Partial Barriers
  • Absorbers
  • Structural Modifications
  • Noise in Ducts
    • Reactive Mufflers
    • Dissipative Elements

6) Application: Sound Intensity and Power

  • Sound Pressure vs. Sound Power
  • Sound Power Measurement Methods
    • Diffuse Field Techniques
    • Free Field Techniques
    • Intensity Techniques
  • Sound Intensity
    • Theory
    • Properties
    • Uses
    • Instrumentation

7) Application: Hearing Conservation

  • Hearing Damage
  • Dose
  • Exchange Rate
  • Threshold
  • Peak
  • Dosimeters